bukit Melaka

bukit Melaka

fairuzstone

fairuzstone

Monday, May 9, 2011

Alexander the Great/Iskandar Zulqarnayn (the 2 horned/2 tanduk)

Catatan Parsi Tentang Iskandar Zulqarnayn: from kitab Sikandar Nama e Barra (the Book of Iskandar/Alexander, in Malay Hikayat Iskandar Zulkarnain)

Menurut catatan kuno Parsi, memang terdapat beberapa tokoh digelar dZul-Qarnayn (yg Bertanduk Dua)... iaitu Raja Parsi Cyrus Agung 700BC (Zulkarnain the Greater) dan Raja dari Greek yg menyatukan Barat (Greek) dan Timur (Farsi) iaitu Raja Iskandar Agung 300 BC (Zulkaranin the Smaller) maybe merujuk kepada usia Alexander yg terlalu muda sudah menguasai dunia. Org farsi juga mengatakan kedua2 zulkarnain tersebut adalah Mukmin Ortodoks (bergama Tauhid syariat Ibrahim AS)

Munurut catitan agama yahudi , Nabi Daniel AS telah mendapat vision & mimpi mengenai kedua2 tokoh yg digelar the 2 horned/zulkarnain yg pertama Cyrus yg menyatukan Lydia & Media, dan kerjaan tersebut akan diatasi oleh kerjaan yg lebih besar menvcantumkan Timur & Barat iaitu zulkarnain dari greek (Alexander), kedua2nya juga dikatakan sebagai org beriman dan kedua2nya dikatakan mendapat kurniaan dan kekuasaan dari Allah SWT.

Maka kedua2 sumber adalah konsisten. Yg menariknya, catatan Farsi kuno mengatakan Zulkarnain kecil/muda yg membina tembok antara dua gunung di Caucasus untuk menghalang bangsa eropah kuno iaitu Gog n Magog dgn tembok besi + gangsa+tembaga dipanggil Barrier of Alexander (sadd-i-iskandar)

darband


the barrier.

bábu-l-abwáb


the gate of gates.

sadd-i-iskandar


the barrier of Sikandar.

sadd-i-ga,júj va ma,júj


the barrier of Gog and Magog.

Darband (ancient Albania), the capital of Daghistan, was a fortress on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus, near Shirván. Some remains of the thick and extensive wall of Gog and Magog, running in a western direction over high and almost inac­cessible mountains, built by Sikandar Zu-l-Ḳarnain (to check the incursions of Hyperborean savages) are still to be seen.

Bahkan menurut catatan bani Israel (walaupun oorg barat cuba menggambarkan Alexander lebih kepada dgn gaya hidup greek/barat), selain menyerang semua kerajaan, yg hairannya ketika sampai Jerusalem / Baitulmaqdis, Alexander the Great tidak menyerang Jerusalem, sebalik datang dan hormat kepada para2 wali bani Israel dan baginda juga turut melawat Haykal Sulaiman (masjid Nabi Sulaiman AS) untuk beribadat dan melakukan korban. Memang terdapat catatan Alexander sering melakukan ibadah korban sebelum berperang.

Mereka juga melihat dahi Alexander seperti mempunyai dua tanduk, mungkin kerana stail rambut dia (alaa mcm rambut al Pacino dlm The Godfather lah jenis back comb) sebagaiman ditulis “They call him in the Greek tongue—Muhibb-i-hikmat, the friend of philosophy. Some call him—Zú-l-ḳarnain-i-așghar; because both sides of his forehead projected like two horns.”

Maka saya merasakan Alexander adalah apa yg dikatakan di dlam surah Al Kahfi. (end text by fairuzStone)



---------------------------------------------------------------------- berikut ialah text dan ulasan on kitab Sikandar Nama

See “Essays” by Dr. Haug, Bombay, 1862; the “Acad. des Inscript.” tom. 37, an extract from which is given (p. 274) in Shea's translations of Mirkhond's “History of the Early Kings of Persia”; Malcolm's “History of Persia,” vol. i. p. 494; the list of Zand and Pahlaví books by Trübner & Co.; two articles by Monier Williams, in “the Nine­teenth Century,” 1881—“the Religion of Zoroaster” (January), and “The Parsís” (March); “Modern India,” by Monier Williams, pp. 56, 169, 202; Hammer's “History of Persian Literature,” and his “Encyclo­pedic View of the Sciences of the East.”

Save the rites of Zar-dusht, the fire-worshipper,—
Other customs he surrendered not.

30

He was the first person who established (the use of) decoration;
(Who), in Rum established gold-coining.

By his order the goldsmith of cunning hand
Fixed leaves of gold on the surface of virgin silver.

The books of wisdom, from the Darí language,
He clothed in the Greek tongue.

Verily the drum of the watch, in the morning and evening,
Brought forth (proclaimed) his name from the watch-place (the court).

He became the guide of the people to the mirror,
Brought forth the jewel (the lustrous mirror) from the darkness (of iron):

35

Severed the tumult of the men of Zang from the world;
Took crown and throne from Dárá:

30

From this couplet it may be inferred that formerly in Rúm certain customs were not in use, such as—gold-coining (sikka,e zar); hand­shaking (mușáfaha); hand-kissing (dast-bosí).

31

“ilá” here signifies—awráḳ-i-ilá, leaves of gold, with which they plate articles.

32

Some say that Sikandar, after translating all these Persian books, burned them.

34

This couplet may refer to the precious jewel that Sikandar brought forth from the darkness. See cantos lxviii. and lxix.

Zang. See canto xix.

Of the blackness (of boasting) of Hindústán and of the yellowness (of plundering) of Russia,
Washed down (purified) the world, like the house of a bride.

His order became the mirror (model) of the men of Chín;
His place the throne of Kay-Khusrau (Cyrus, B.C. 558).

When his age urged (turned) a leaf over twenty years,
It (his age) smote, in royalty, the leather strap on the drum.

Secondly, when he added seven to twenty years,
He bound up his chattels for prophesying (regarding God) and set out.

40

From that day, when he went a-prophesying,
They wrote the date (era) of Sikandar.

36

“Baitu-l-'arús” signifies—the whitened house of a man or a woman newly married. When a death occurs the house is blackened.

The men of Hindústán are very black; of Russia, whitish yellow.

38

Sikandar at the age of twenty, having subdued the monarchs of the East, returned to Rúm and sat on the throne. This was his first excursion. See canto lxxi.

“Dawal,” meaning a drum-stick, here signifies—tasma, a thong of undressed hide.

39

The firstly occurs in couplet 38.

They call him in the Greek tongue—Muhibb-i-hikmat, the friend of philosophy. Some call him—Zú-l-ḳarnain-i-așghar; because both sides of his forehead projected like two horns.

In the Burhán-i-ḳái', it is written that Dárab's wife, the daughter of Philip of Makedon, being afflicted with a foul breath, was sent back to her father. After a physician, Iskandarús, had cured her, a son, whom doubtless they called Iskandar, was born. See canto xv., couplet 30.

The son of Sikandar and Roshanak (Dárá's daughter) was called Iskan-darús, which, in Rúm, signifies—a shield. See canto xxxv., couplet 83.

40

They wrote history before Sikandar's mission from a certain date; after his mission from his date; and now from the date of Christ, or of Muhammad.

Before Muhammad's time Persian histories have no era.

When he became the teacher of wisdom, in regard to the true religion (of Islám),
He became, like (auspicious) fortune, joyous to the world:

Stirred up much proof (by miracle) as to the pure religion (of Islám);
Erected many buildings on the surface of the dust (of the earth):

In every revolution round the compass of time (the seven climes),
Founded many wealthy cities:

From Hindústán to the confines of Rúm,
Raised a city in every land and clime.

45

Gave adornment even to Samarkand;
—Not one Samarkand, but to many (a city) like it:

Founded a city like the city Hirí (Hirát);
Like to which another seldom makes a city.

The door and wall that Darband first obtained,
It obtained, by the wisdom of that wise one (Sikandar).

41

They say that Sikandar was of the faith of Ibráhím (the prophet), and consequently mu,mín (orthodox); and that Adam was the first Muslim.

44

“Marz” signifies—zamín-i-ránda va ábád.

“Búm” signifies—zamín-i-ná ránda va kharab.

46

The “Journal” of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1834, vol. iii. p. 9, says:—Luhrasp began and Sikandar completed the building of Hirát.

47

“Darband” (dar signifying door, and band, fortress) has several names—

darband


the barrier.

bábu-l-abwáb


the gate of gates.

sadd-i-iskandar


the barrier of Sikandar.

sadd-i-ga,júj va ma,júj


the barrier of Gog and Magog.

Darband (ancient Albania), the capital of Daghistan, was a fortress on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus, near Shirván. Some remains of the thick and extensive wall of Gog and Magog, running in a western direction over high and almost inac­cessible mountains, built by Sikandar Zu-l-Ḳarnain (to check the incursions of Hyperborean savages) are still to be seen.

Many believe that Sikandar (Alexander the Great) is the prophet Sikandar Zu-l-Ḳarnain the greater, mentioned in Sale's Ḳurán, chap. xviii.; and that he built the rampart which confines Ya,júj (Gog) and Ma,júj (Magog). These evil demons, according to the Persians, dwell in Mount Káf, the centre of the world; and their progeny, who are of all sizes and shapes, used to plunder and lay waste the neighbouring countries, till the inhabitants complained to Sikandar, who built his wall to confine them. They scratch it almost through with their claws every day and go home, expecting that they will easily destroy in the morning the little that is left; but in the morning they find the wall rebuilt.

The reason of their failure is their never saying—“Inshalla” (God willing), and they will never destroy this wall till one of their children is named Inshalla, when, on retiring, they will call the boy:—“Come along, Inshalla; we shall finish to-morrow.”

By the accidental use of this expression they will succeed in destroy­ing it, and their consequent ravages will be a sign of the dissolution of the Universe. See Malcolm's “History of Persia,” vol. i. p. 62; and the “Asiatic Journal,” vol. x., January-April, 1833.

In the word Samarḳand, samar is a king's name, and ḳand (in the language of the region this side of the Oxus) signifies—a city.

“Ba shar” signifies—ba muḳtaẓạ.

Pass beyond Bulghár, which is of his work;
Its true site is his Bunghár (chattel-place).

Verily, the barrier of (the tribe of) Ya,juj became lofty by him:
—Who thus established a barrier on the mountain?

48

When Sikandar, in search of the water of life, came to the “Dark­ness” (canto lxix), he made in its vicinity a dwelling place (bungáh), or store-place for his chattels, in Bunghár (a place of many caves); and when he came thence and marched into the “Darkness,”—a crowd of people from the neighbouring districts and the men of his army who were wearied of marching assembled and established a great city. The true site of that Bulghár is Bunghár.

“Bunágáh” signifies—bungáh.

In the Rashídí the meaning of Bulghar (Bunghár) is—bisiyar ghár (for bul signifies—bisiyár). The Ḳámus says:—The word is properly Bulghar, but that the people call it Bulghár, which is pure Arabic.

The second line may be rendered:—

Its true foundation is its cave's foundation.

See canto lxviii. couplet 45; lxi. 10.

49

Near the Caspian, between two mountains, for a length of one hun­dred farsangs, Sikandar built a wall of brick, iron, tin and lead,—that the two tribes, Ya,júj (Gog) and Ma,júj (Magog), the offspring of Yafar, the son of Nuh (on him be peace!), might not intrude. Sale's Ḳurán, chap. xviii.

See couplets 47 and 59; the second book of this work (the Sikandar-Náma,e bahrí); and the Sháh-Náma, by Firdausí.

50

Besides this, he also established many foundations (cities);
But one cannot mention about him more than this.

When to that pure body (Sikandar of pure religion) the purpose came,
That he should apportion the form of the dust (of the world).

He drew out a cross-line (wandered far and wide) in the world,
Before that the cross-bearer (the Christian) appeared.

With that celestial line of four angles (for earth-measur­ing),
He set up the computation of geometry:

Upreared a great tent of four bounds (corners),
That beat five drums against (exulted over) the ninth heaven.

55

Its one peg in the northern pole,
Its other peg in the southern amplitude.

He drew the tent-rope from this side to the east;
From it another tent-rope reached to the west.

50

In the plain of Khafcháḳ, between two mountains, Sikandar set up another barrier against robbers.

52

“Kha-i-șalíbí” signifies—kha-i-alasí, or kha-i-chahár gosha, the cutting of an equatorial with an axial line—the former from east to west, the latter from north to south; or an instrument for measuring the earth.

53

Sikandar, a world-wanderer, described a cross on the earth—that is, he travelled east, west, north, and south, and discovered the dimensions of the earth.

“Salíbí” here signifies—a cross-bearer, wearing a cross of silver, copper, or wood, attached to his girdle. Many Christians have the cross embroidered on pieces of satin which they wear.

Within this workshop (of the world) as regards (measuring) this length and breadth (of the world);
To whom other (than he) was such power?

When he began the design of world-wandering
For applying the (measuring) line, he prepared lines

Of farsang, and of mile, and of halting-place,—
Of the earth, to the extent of one span, he left not.

60

He had surveyors, measure-taking;
A hundred scribes appointed to that work (of earth-measuring).

The measuring-line fixed, the dimension became evident;
The limits of the stage became conspicuous.

On dry-land, wherever he pitched his tent,
From stage to stage he measured the way.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Selangore Sultanate

In ancient time, Selangor was not a unified state as it is now. But the places around Selangor were governed by ancient Malay Kingdom like Sri Vijaya based on the river settlements such as Kuala Selangor has its own settlement, Kelang river has its own settlement and so to Jugra-Langat river also had settelement of orang laut and there also some malay tribes from celebes settled there during monsoon, And so those rivers settlement will be administered by appointed headman called mandulika during sri vijaya times and penghulu during Melaka times, all these penghulu/mandulika of kuala selangor, kelang and jugra paid homage to reigning kings of Sri vijaya, then Melaka and followed by Johor Riau empire.. these small settlements served as feeder ports to support the needs of capital port like Palembanng (during sri vijaya), melaka port and riau-lingga port (during Johor riau kingdom), as vassal states they also have to provide manpower for navy fleets and soldiers to the capital during wars. That's why during siamese attack, kelang under its penghulu Tun Perak was recorded as the most prominent fighting battalion or garrison instrumental in defeating siamese army in both attempts around circa 1440- 1450's during Sultan Muzaffar Shah reign.
this settlements of oranglaut tribes had sworn to be the servants and fighting men for any reigning king from bukit seguntang palembang lineage and this was practiced for thousands of years.....
during johor riau empire, when the time of disputes and wars with holland or acheh or else, these rivers were populated by Bugis merceneries and traders as port for them to repair their ships, gathering goods for trading and settlement while waiting monsoon winds for sailing. before establishment of a proper state, there were records about titles like Raja Tua Selangor, Tok Engku Kelang, Tengku Kelana, penghulu and so forth, all were considered as the headmen of representatives to the reigning malay monarch. until during the times of 5bugis brothers controlling or patrolling the areas on behalf of the Sultan, the people of selangor wanted to have their own king fearing that current scenario of continuous warfare around the Malay archipelagos may one day expose these settlement to the dominions or colonization of the western powers especially from the dutch....\\
the situations were not certain here and there, where many wars broken here and there, thus these rivers settlements shall be unified and ruled by a king rather than been possessed by any western powers who always look for colony taking advantage during warring period.
since the bugis had populated the places and well mixed with the orang laut who were also of the same stock,, the people of selangor rivers preferred one of the 5 bugis prince selected to become their king and they favoured Opu Daeng Chelak to become the king. but this cannot been fulfilled, bexause Daeng Chelak was also needed to administer the johor riau empire as Yamtuan Muda (the underking to the Sultan of Johor), since his brother Daeng Perani was killed during a battle at kuala kedah therefore only Daeng Chelak could replace opu Daeng Merewah (the eldest, the first yamtuan muda) if Daeng Merewah died. Moreso, the younger brothers Daeng Kemasi and Daeng Menambun were both had find their place to become king at borneo e.g. Mempawah, Pontianak and Siantan.
for this purpose , a son of opu Daeng Chelak i.e. Daeng/Raja Lumu was tested with several endurance tests and rituals as to qualify to become a sultan and he passed all tests without any harms happened to his body, and therefore the Sultan of Perak who is direct descendant to Sri Vijaya Bukit Seguntang bloodline had invited raja lumu to come to Pulau Pangkor where on his way there were several tests conducted to test him to qualified as a king based on ancient malay kingdom customs and rituals..Seeing raja Lumu survived all tests then Sultan Perak had recognized raja lumu as the righteous person to become a sovereign king and bestowed with regalias and royal orghestra (Nobat) to complete the procession. then Raja Lumu was confirmed as the first sultan of Selangor with title Sultan Salehuddin Shah and qualified to bring home regalias and nobat with the players too who were called as Orang Kalau/Kelur and their posutions were inherited down to their descendants until now.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

coup d'etat in ancient Malay Sultanate (Melaka) Part2

Part2.

Tun Ali bin Mani Purindan is brother to Raja Kassim's mother. As uncle, he couldn't bear to see Raja Kassim who's an able man and fit to be the sultan live as peasant , as compared to the minor king that's being used by Raja Rokan to impose his influence on the administration of the kingdom. Tun Ali had many fiends of Muslims traders who started to frequently harbouring Melaka port. Their numbers were increased from time to time since the conversion of Melaka sultan to Islam. They comprised of traders from Gujerat, Benggala, Bombay, Hadhramaut, Jeddah, Habshah,Persia, Turkey and other smaller states.

Some of the ships of Muslim traders were also equipped with sufficient weaponry for the protection from piracy or any other enemies. Tun Ali met some Arab ship captains and told them the situation in Melaka, the only way to save it is through coup d'etat, considering the current support towards palace had weakened due to abuse of power by Raja Rokan where many ministers and court officials were not in favor with the running of the throne. One ship capatain agreed to the condition if this plan is successful, he wanted the Raja Paraeswara Dewa Syah's (the minor king)mother, the Puteri Rokan, been given to be his wife as reward for his mercenaries. Tun Ali agreeable to that.

At one black night, all the muslims ships crews from Arabs and India assembled at the port of Melaka complete with fighting weapon, Tun Ali and local fighting from those who sympathized with the fate of Raja kassim joined the attacking army. They move in the night to Bendahara Seri Wak Raja residence, with Raja Kassim on top of an elephant they stopped at the Bendahara's main gate. Tun Ali came to Bendahara's house and called Bendahara said the king summons Bendahara ("titah memanggil Datok naik ke gajah!!") to join his highness on the elephant waiting outside the gate at once. And so Dato Bendahara Sri Wak Raja rushed underdressed to the elephant thinking it is the reigning king waiting for him.

To his surprise it was Raja Kassim, not Raja Parameswara Dewa Syah. And he saw many fighting men complete with war gears surround the Raja Kassim elephant. Bendahara understood they all were there to invade the palace and overthrow the raja Rokan's men. Bendahara cannot say much but to condone and saying "Raja Kassim pun tuan kepada kita juga" or Raja Kassim is my lord too.

The attacking party moved to the palace and attacked at once. It were chaos and havoc that night. Raja Kassim ordered the men not to kill Raja Rokan first , fearing his brother the minor king who's always inhis arms be killed if they do anything unto Raja Rokan, but the atmosphere was so noisy with men shouting and fighting. The palace was defended mostly by palace guards and Raja Rokan's loyal men. Some soldiers knowing that this is a coup d'etat by the elder prince, stayed away from the fight and be neutral,

The palace side was defeated and the ianvading fighters did not know Raja Kassim order. They especially those who has long dislikened Raja Rokan's attitude and manners attacked him and had succeed to injure him. Knowing he was inh=jured he then killed the minor king first whilst many tried to take the king away from him but Raja Rokan hugged the king so tightly. With no choice they finished the life of Raja Rokan.. and the minor King was already dead by Raja Rokan's keris.

Tun Ali had selected one beautiful palace attendant to impersonate like Puteri Rokan, and she's given to the Arab ship capatain who has cooperated to bring Muslims trader to join the invading team.

Raja Kassim then succeeded to become the next Melaka king with title Sultan Muzaffar Syah where he is the first to use Sultan as the king title replacing formerly used Raja.. since the use of name Sultan, Islam then was considered to become official religion to Melaka kingdom and later on by all malays throughout Malays Archipelagoes.

Friday, January 22, 2010

Ancient Mariner - the spirit and courage

"We're following the ancient Cinnamon Route," he says proudly, seated atop a coil of rope in the ship's bow as it skims across the Java Sea. "Indonesian ships sailed it thousands of years ago, bringing the spices of the islands to Africa and returning with iron, luxury goods such as ivory and leopard skins, and slaves. It was the beginning of global commerce."

Though largely unknown outside of the region, this was one of the first great achievements in marine exploration: centuries before anybody else engaged in regular long-distance voyages, mariners from the Malay Archipelago ruled the Indian Ocean. The Roman historian Pliny wrote in the first century A.D. about sailors arriving in Africa from the eastern sea on rafts, propelled not by sails but by "the spirit of man and human courage," carrying cinnamon and other spices.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,480337,00.html#ixzz0dPqiCpgS

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Get Rid of It, Move Forward

By kamal ahmad on November 3, 2009 4:34 PM
Salam Ayahanda Tun. Saya posting perang Tun tak masuk. Hanan dah duk kena tabuh dah. Tak mau tepalit. Tapi kirim salam kat dia. Bro Waja Perak, this posting saya fly cover S Tan. Pipe of peace duk menanak berasap lagi. Take care all. Lama tak dengar Waja Perak hentam kiri kanan. Saya baru sudah buat brownies. Beli ready made bancuh, bake saja. Mai mai makan!
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
By fairuzstone on November 3, 2009 10:29 AM
Assalamualaikum YABhg. Tun and everyones,

I subscribe to the idea that BN should not loose the GE 13th, since the people had seen the ineffeciency of PR in administration of states under their control. So many have been witnessed by public the like adun resignation motions,changing side due to lack of confidence towards their leadership and so forth.

What DSNTR has to prove now onward is to prove that his administration is not like the former flip-flop-level 4-centered administration. He must get rid of those 5-year of disaster and its elements. and he must do it now or never.... 'cuz time flies fast...

fairuz kamarulzaman
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By mod on November 3, 2009 9:03 AM
Assalamualaikum Tun,

UMNO dan BN bersikap 'Gentlement' mengarahkan SPRM(BPR) melakukan siasatan perihal salahlaku yang boleh menyebabkan gejala 'rasuah' dari golongan bawahan hinggalah keperingkat kepimpinan. Dan jika terbukti ada kes perlulah dibawa kemuka pengadilan.

PAS, DAP, PKR - (PR) bagaimana?.

Sebab itulah, apabila berkaitan rasuah/salahlaku lebih menjuruskan BN, kerana PR tak berapa berani melaporkan, sebab ada 'dua alam'.

PAS Kelantan nak rasuah 'syurga'.
PR Selangor sedang disiasat, tapi tak ada lapuran kepada SPRM, cuma inisiatif SPRM sahaja. Yang jelas penyelewengan telah berlaku.

Rakyat perlu sedar sekarang parti manakah yang lebih telus.


Wassalam

By wajaperak on November 3, 2009 8:46 AM
Dengan Izin Tun..Terima kasih..

S..Tan

[[...............ygolopa]]
All is well if we don’t harbour ill will for one another. We are debating viewpoints and it is fairly expected to get agitated sometimes. We don’t have to put down our swords, we need it for self defense (but not for cutting opposition)]]

Saturday, August 29, 2009

Bendahara Melaka - Johor (extracted from Wikipedia)

Bendaharas of Malacca and Johore

* Tun Perpatih Muka Berjajar, Bendahara
* Tun Perpatih Tulus, Bendahara of Malacca
* Raden Bagus, Bendahara of Malacca
* Raden Anum, Bendahara Sri Amar DiRaja, Bendahara of Malacca
* Tun Perpatih Sedang, Bendahara Sri Wak Raja, Bendahara of Malacca
* Tun Perpatih Putih, Bendahara Paduka Tuan, Bendahara of Malacca
* Tun Perak, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Bendahara of Malacca
* Tun Mutahir, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Malacca
* Tun Tepok, Bendahara Paduka Tuan, Bendahara of Malacca

After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese, the Malacca Sultanate was succeeded by the Johore Sultanate

* Tun Khoja, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Biajid, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Mahmud, Bendahara Tun Narawangsa, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Isap Misai, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Sri Lanang, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Bendahara of Johore. He was captured by the Achenese forces and opted to remain in Acheh.

The following Bendaharas were sidelined by the palace following the rise of Laksamana Paduka Tuan

* Tun Anum, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Mat Ali, Bendahara Paduka Tuan, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Rantau, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore. He was captured by the Jambi forces.

* Tun Habib Abdul Majid, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara Padang Saujana, restored back the position of the bendahara in the palace.

* Tun Abdul Jalil, Bendahara Paduka Raja, was elevated to the Sultan of Johore, Sultan Abdul Jalil IV following the death of Sultan Mahmud II. The Temenggung branch of his dynasty still rules the Malaysian state of Johore today.

* Tun Abbas, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore and Pahang

Following the elevation Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the bendahara was granted Pahang as their personal fief. From thereon afterwards the Bendahara of Johor is known as the Bendahara in Pahang. They are also known as "Raja Bendahara" for their status as the rulers of the vassal state of Pahang. Pahang was the vassal of Johore Sultanate.

[edit] Bendahara in Pahang

* Tun Abdul Majid, Raja Bendahara Pahang I (1777-1802)
* Tun Muhammad, Raja Bendahara Pahang II
* Tun Koris, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Raja Bendahara Pahang III (1803-1806)
* Tun Ali, Bendahara Siwa Raja, Raja Bendahara Pahang IV (1806-1847)
* Tun Mutahir, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Raja Bendahara Pahang V (1847-1863). He is the last reigning Raja Bendahara of Pahang. He was ousted by his brother Wan Ahmad who was later proclaimed as Sultan of Pahang after the dismemberment of the Johore Empire.

[edit] S

Friday, August 28, 2009

Bhg 3 - Kedatangan dan pengaruh Bugis di Tanah Melayu

Sedang Dinasti Bendahara memulakan tapak pemerintahan meneruskan kesinambungan kerajaan Johor Riau, kemudian muncul pula tuntutan takhta oleh Raja Kechil dari Siak yang mendakwa bahawa dia adalah anak kepada Sultan Mahmud ke2 yg telah mangkat itu. Bersama angkatannya yg disokong oleh kerajaan2 kecil di Sumatra terutama dari Kampar, Siak dan Minangkabau berserta bantuan dari orang laut yg mempercayai bahwa Raja Kechil Siak itu merupakan anakanda kepada sultan yg telah mangkat itu.
Maka mereka telah menyerang ibukota Johor riau ketika itu di kota tinggi Johor dengan matlamat merampas takhta kerajaan dari Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah bekas bendahara.

Pihak Sultan Abd Jalil akhirnya tewas dan bersama kaum kerabat dan pengiring serta pembesar yg ada melarikan diri ke Pahang dan Terengganu.

Pada masa huru hara politik yg berlaku pada kerajaan Johor Riau (empayar Melayu yang terakhir), peranan dan bantuan dari orang Melayu suku Bugis bakal menjadi penentu siapakah yang berhak menjadi raja Johor Riau.

Dari Sulawesi Selatan, Luwuk yg dikatakan negeri dan kerajaan yg tertua di tanah bugis, apabila kekandanya diangkat sebagai Raja negeri Luwuk maka Opu Tanreburong Daeng Rilaka yg mempunyai 5 orang anak lelaki iaitu Opu Daeng Merewah, Opu Daeng Perani,Opu Daeng Chelak, Opu Daeng Menambun dan Opu Daeng Kemasi telah berkira-kira hendak berkelana kerana tidak mahu anak-anakl lelaki nya yg mempunyai bakat, kemampuan dan berderajat hanya menjadi penjawat awam di istana atau di balai kerajaan kekandanya jika mereka kekal diam di Luwuk.

Pada Daeng Rilaka adalah lebih bermaruah berkelana meneroka peluang dan tempat orang dengan berdagang atau menyediakan tenaga askar upahan mana2 negeri melayu yg memerlukan pertolongan. Dengan membawa nama baik dan keupayaan yg ada lagi baik dicuba mencari khidmat dan nama di negeri orang.Hendaknya di zaman itu sudah tiada lagi kerajaan melayu yg benar2 berwibawa dan kuat, semuanya telah berpecah pecah menjadi negeri kecil dan menjaga hal ehwal masing2 aje.

Ini kerana sejak kedatangn portugis dan tumbangnya empayar Melaka, hanya kerajaan Johor Riau dan kerajaan Acheh sj yg dianggapkerajaan besar untuk menaung kerajan2 kecil yg ada. Makin pula masing2 selalu berperang sesama sendiri, makin mudahlah Belanda meluaskan lagi jajahan dengan menguasai perdagangan rempah kerana kerajaan melayu ketika itu jika tidak berperang dengan portugis maka akan berperang sesama sendiri seperti Acheh yg besar kemudian mahu menguasai pula neger12 yg sebelum itu bernaung di bawah Johor Riau seperti Perak dan Kedah yg sentiasa di ganggu dan diserang. dan juga Pahang.

Lama kelamaan kerjaan2 melayu semakin lemah dan kehabisan sumber,keadaan ini makin memudahkan Belanda sedikit demi sedikit menguasai perdagangan rempah dari laluan kepulauan maluku ke nusantara.

Monday, June 22, 2009

Kedatangan Pengaruh Bugis di tanah Semenanjung dan kepulauan Melayu - Bahagian 2

Saturday, May 30, 2009

Dari Dinasti Kesultanan Melaka, pemerintahan kerajaan Johor-Riau beralih kepada Dinasti Bendahara. Sultan Mahmud II yg mangkat dibunuh, pada tahun 1699, terlalu muda, 24 tahun, dan tidak mempunyai anak. Dikatakan baginda tidak mau bersama tidur dengan permaisuri dan isteri2nya yg ada. Dikatakan baginda mpunyai perangai yg pelik dan percaya bahawa dia hanya layak untuk bersama dengan perempuan bangsa kayangan ataupun peri, iaitu sebenarnya kaum bunian. Banyak catatan tentang keburukan sikap baginda yg akhirnya menyebabkan pupusnya pemerintahan kesultanan yg berasal dari Melaka di Johor-Riau.

Ketika itu Bendahara Johor-Riau adalah Tun Abdul Jalil ibni Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid yang anakanda-anakandanya dan keturunannya memerintah di Terengganu (sehingga sekarang) dan Pahang (sehingga sekarang). Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil kemudian mengambilalih tampuk pemerintahan dengan menjadi Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Syah.

Saturday, May 30, 2009

Kedatangan Pengaruh Bugis di tanah Semenanjung dan kepulauan Melayu

Bugis adalah salah satu dari suku kaum Melayu, yang mana, suku kaum Melayu yg lain adalah seperti Minangkabau, Banjar, Jawa, Melayu Patani, Mandahiling, Acheh, Brunei, Moro, Orang Laut, Melayu Champa(Kemboja), Rawa, Kerinchi dan byk lagi. Asal orang Bugis adalah dari Sulawesi, lebih tepat lagi Selatan Sulawesi yg merangkumi negeri2 kecil seperti states like Luwuk, Bone, Wajo, Soppeng and Gowa/Makassar/Mengkasar.

Sekitar tahun 1669 masehi, setelah berperang dengan sengitnya di laut dan di darat, kerajaan utama dan terbesar di Selatan Sulawesi iaitu kerajaan Gowa Makasar yg berpusat di kota Ujung Pandang (juga dikenali kota Makasar), akhirnya terpaksa menerima residen Belanda dan menandatangani perjanjian damai yg juga mengaku kalah dengan pihak VOC Belanda yg juga dibantu oleh angkatan tentera dari kerajaan2 yg bermusuh dgn kerajaan Gowa Makasar seperti Bone, Madura dan Jatelah wa.

Terdapat beberapa lagi kerajaan Bugis di Selatan Sulawesi yg membentuk negeri masing2 dan kerajaan yg tertua sekali di kalangan mereka ialah Luwu', yg dikatakan kerajaan yg asal sebelum wujud kerajan2 lain.

Pada tahun 1699 pula, berlaku tragedi dan kegawatan yg sangat besar ke atas empayar Melayu yg tertua iaitu kerajaan Johor-Riau, waris kepada empayar Melaka yg berasal dari kerajaan Sri Vijaya yg menguasai Selat Melaka dan Laut China Selatan selama 1000 tahun. Sultan Mahmud kedua telah dibunuh oleh pembesar nya semasa di atas usungan. Sultan Mahmud kedua adalah waris terakhir kerajaan Johor Riau yg dari salasilah Melaka dan Sri Vijaya. Terdapat juga waris kerajan Melaka tetapi memerintah di negeri Perak yg berasal dari Sultan Muzaffar Shah anak kepada Sultan Mahmud Melaka dari isteri Tun Teja. Manakala yg menyambung pemerintahan Johor Riau pula adalah dari waris Sultan Alaudin anak Sultan Mahmud Melaka dari isterinya Tun Fatimah.

Sultan Mahmud kedua tidak mempunyai waris ini kerana baginda mangkat dibunuh di usia yg muda 24 tahun dan mempunyai perangai yg sangat pelik dan teruk, di mana dikatakan baginda tidak mahu bergaul dengan isteri-isterinya kononnya baginda hanya layak bergaul dengan isteri dari kaum bunian yg bukan manusia. Terdapat banyak rekod dari catatan tempatan dan juga orang Eropah yg pernah berjumpa baginda yg menunjukkan sikap zalim dan pelik sehingga ketahap tidak layak untuk menjadi raja lagi jika mengikut undang-undangraja-raja Melayu yg menuntut seorang raja Melayu perlulah waras dan mematuhi waadat perjanjian Sang Sapurba-Demang Lebar Daun (perjanjian antara raja dan hamba rakyat yg dipersetujui semasa kerajaan Sri Vijaya Palembang lagi iaitu seorang Raja Melayu tidak akan mengaibkan hamba rakyatnya walau besar mana dosanya, hanya perlu dijatuhkan hukuman mengikut kesalahannya tetapi tidak dimalukan, dan disebelah rakyat pula hendaklah taat setia tidak derhaka kepada rajanya walau besar mana dosanya), di dalam kes Sultan Mahmud Kedua ini, baginda telah mencabul perjanjian ini dengan memberi aib dan kejam dengan menhukum belah perut seorang perempuan yg mengandung yg merupakan isteri kepada Laksamananya hanya kerana perempuan itu telah memakan nangka raja kerana mengidam.

Akibat kejadian yg amat aib dan kejam ini perempuan itu telah dipotong perut nya yg sedang bunting untuk memuaskan kehendak baginda yg mahu melihat betulkah anak kandungan itu yg hendak memakan nangka itu. Setelah kejadian itu, maka hilanglah kesetian di sebelah pembesar yg mewakili rakyat, di mana para pembesar dari Bendahara hingga ke Laksamana memutuskan untuk menamatkan riwayat raja ini.

Maka huru-haralah kerajaan Melayu Johor Riau tidak mempunyai tuan lagi, tampuk pemerintahan telah berpindah ketangan dinasti Bendahara pula. Mengikut undang-undang raja Melayu jika Sultan sudah tiada lagi dan tiada waris maka Bendahara lah yg layak untuk menggantikannya.

-bersambung-

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Mengajar Sains dan Matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris - Why NOT ???

(sent and posted on chedet blog as follows)

By fairuzstone on March 11, 2009 5:28 AM

Assalamualaikum YABhg Tun dan pembaca semua,
Saya hanya menggeleng kepala melihat gelagat mereka yg menentang apa yg dirujuk sebagai PPSMI. Sampai begitu sekali mereka berdemonstrasi bagaikan menentang musuh. Keadaan menjadi semakin haru bila para hipokrit dan opportunis/pengambilkesempatan dari pelbagai parti politik pun turut tumpang tui sekali.

Pada asalnya saya tidak mahulah mengulas isu ini takut nanti akan ada kecenderungan untuk salah tafsir tetapi nampak gayanya masih ramai tidak dapat menghalusi matlamat utamanya. Saya amat berkeyakinan BUKANlah MAKSUD sebenar Tun Dr Mahathir yg melaksanakannya untuk MEMPERTIDAKKAN atau MEMPERLEKEHKAN bahasa ibundanya apatah lagi untuk memperagungkan bahasa penjajah. Amat DANGKAL andaian itu, siapakah yg betul2 berani bersuara menegur amalan dwi-standard negara barat atau juga ada yg menggelar 'western hypocracy' terutama dalam hal perdagangan bebas, liberalisasi, kawalan dagang, hak asasi manusia, campurtangan asing dan pendemokrasian tidak berpilih, secara konsisten beliau bersuara bukan di gelanggang sendiri tetapi di gelanggang dunia, bukan sperti kebanyakan kita yg hanya jaguh kampung sembang deras di kedai kopi sahaja tapi tidak berani ke luar, beliau bercakap di rostrum Perhimpunan Agung PBB (UN General Assembly)sebagaimana diwarisi oleh HUgo Chavez dan Ahmadinejad, beliau bersuara di sidang APEC, WEF, NAM, CHOGM, South-South, dan apa saja termasuklah ketika sessi soal jawab dan temuramah dgn CNN & BBC yg wartawannya telah bersedia rapi dgn soalan2 yg menjurus ke arah agenda mereka (Leading questions).
Saya percaya bahawa melaksanakan PPSMI adalah perlu sebagai antara strategi untuk mencapai MATLAMAT kita menjadi bangsa yg benar2 maju dan mampu menghasilkan tamadun baru.
Ia dibuat dengan bersebab!!! Bukan suka-suka.

Cuba fikir, mengapa hanya 2 subjek sahaja ????? Iaitu Sains dan Matematik saja.
Mengapa tidak semua subjek di'inggeris'kan???????? kalau betullah niat Tun dan menterinya ketika itu hendak mengagungkan bahasa asing dan mempertidakkan keupayaan bahasa Melayu.

Ini kerana -

1. Kita hanya ada 11 tahun lagi untuk mencapai matlamat kita menjadi bangsa yg maju dan mengungguli tamadun menhjelang 2020. Kita jangan terikut bangsa lain yg selesa dgn apa yg mereka ada, asal cukup makan dapat hidup cukup. Kita tak boleh BERTATIH lagi sebagaimana generasi kita sekarang, generasi anak2 kita yg boleh dibentuk itu perlu mampu BERLARI untuk mencapai sasaran dengan cepat sebagai mana semangat orang German "Vorsprung Durch Technik!!" di mana mereka sudah sampai dahulu dengan teknik dan teknologi yg maju.

Kita jangan mudah saja mentakrif untuk menjadi bangsa maju dengan hanya dengan kekayaan kita membeli barang orang, menjadi pengguna teknologi orang saja, dengan mempunyai infrastruktur termoden dengan bangunan tinggi sahaja dan kaya ekonomi saja. Itu tafsiran separuh jalan saja. Sedang kita masih lagi bertaraf BANGSA PENGGUNA saja di zaman sekarang ini.

Kita perlu sekurang-kurangnya menerokai penghasilan teknologi baru atau tamadun baru yg boleh digunakan oleh masyarakat dunia dan dikomersilkan secara massa di peringkat dunia seperti orang Yunani/Greek menyumbang teori dan falsafah politik, kenegaraan, hukum alam dan bintang, sejarah, orang Cina memperkenalkan kertas & bahan letupan, orang India dengan falsafah hidup dan perubatan awal, orang Arab menggabungkan ilmu perubatan Greek dan India untuk menjadi ilmu perubatan yg universal menjadi asas kepada ilmu perubatan moden dari barat pula,orang Arab juga telah berjaya menyelesaikan masalah matematik yg tidak dapat dieselesaikan oleh ilmuwan Greek sebelum itu dengan sistem nombor yg lebih banyak, algebra, algoritma dan persamaan. Tapi sebelum itu mereka pun kena belajar matematik kuno Greek dalam bahasa Greek (bukan yg diterjemahkan ya!!) ini kerana mereka hendak menguasai (mastering) ilmu tersebut yg ditulis dengan bahasa penciptanya mengikut konteks bangsa itu, maka Ibnu Sina ke, Al Khawarizmi ke, Ibnu Rashid ke dan sesiapa saja terlebih dahulu mempelajari/mengkaji ilmu asas/kuno dalam bahasa Greek dan kemudian bila mereka berjaya menghasilkan kaedah atau rumusan baru yg dapat menyelesaikan atau mengatasi ilmu yg asal itu barulah mereka menulis penghasilan baru mereka di dalam kitab dengan bahasa sendiri yakni bahasa Arab atau pun Farsi. Kemudian apabila orang Eropah telah mula celik dari kegelapan (rennaisance from dark ages) mereka pun datang menuntut ilmu perubatan, matematik, sains, astronomi dan kejuruteraan awal dari orang-orang Islam dalam bahasa Arab.

Kalau nak tunggu semua kitab2 tibb dan lain2 ilmu dari dunia Arab yg beribu2 dulu diterjemahkan dulu yg memakan masa bertahun2 kemudian diajarkan pula dalam bahasa sendiri dan kemudian bila ada permasalahan atau bila ada buku rujukan baru dari bahasa Arab terpaksalah panggil balik penterjemah untuk tolong terjemahkan l;agi, alamat lambatlah bangsa Eropah nak jadi maju seperti sekarang ni. Mereka pun datang belajar ilmu asas dalam bahasa Arab dahulu, bila sudah "master" baru mereka mencambahkan ilmu itu dan ditulis dalam bahasa Eropah pula.

Amerika pun nak mencedok teknologi German kena belajar dalam bahasa German , nasib baik ramai saintis yahudi German berhijrah ke Amerika maka dapatlah Amerika ilmu segera.

2. Menyedari perkara ini, dizaman sekarang buku2 rujukan terkini tentang teknologi2 yang canggih ditulis dalam bahasa inggeris kerana ini zaman mereka yg menguasai tamadun. Penemuan teknologi baru dan penerbitan buku2 baru yg ditulis dalam bahasa inggeris sangat pantas, setiap jam ada saja penerbitan baru tak kiralah dalam bentuk buku atau jurnal atau risalah atau artikel atau internet pun. Kita jgn menyombong bodoh kan diri. Orang inggeris pun masa hendak mengecek ilmu dari orang Arab sanggup buang sombong mereka dulu dan belajar.

Maka eloklah anak2 kita yg akan kita harapkan menjadi peneroka atau penghasil teknologi2 baru atau ilmu ketamadunan baru yg belum direka orang lain belajar dahulu ilmu sains dan matematik dalam bahasa mereka dulu supaya mereka dengan mudah diberi apa buku pun mereka sudah biasa dengan istilah2/terminologi atau namakhas2 yg berasal dari bahasa inggeris dengan laju dan cepat. Kita tak boleh membuang masa sangat, berlengah-lengah. Yang berpusisi dan bersyair pun ada tempatnya tetap kita martabatkan, begitu juga yg hendak menggali ilmu teknologi baru biarlah mereka mahir dalam ilmu itu dan menguasainya betul2 dalam konteks penghasil ilmu itu. Kemudian jika mereka hendak menulis atau merekod penghasilan baru mereka bolehlah ditulis dalam bahasa Melayu kita pula. Di waktu itulah baru berduyun2 orang dari segenap penjuru alam datang dengan rela hati belajar ilmu baru dalam bahasa Melayu jika mereka hendak menguasai teknologi baru yg orang kita sendiri hasilkan.

Barulah bahasa kita akan kembali menjadi Lingua Franca seperti di zaman2 sebelum abad ke 16 dahulu di mana sesiapa yg hendak berdagang di peringkat global disebelah timur kena tahu bahasa Melayu dari Filipina ke Papua ke Fiji merentas lautan sampai ke Sri Lanka, India Selatan dan Madagscar bahasa Melayu digunapakai jika dua bangsa berlainan hendak berkomunikasi. Kenapa ?? Adakah mana2 badan yg memaksa mereka berbahasa Melayu??? Tiada, tetapi mereka sendiri yg memilih kerana merasai ia perlu, ini disebabkan kan orang2 Melayu dulu kala (bukan Melayu sekarang ya!!) yakni dari zaman Sri Vijaya dan Melaka telah menguasai perdagangan antarabangsa di mana emaapyar bangsa Melayu dahulukala telah menyeragamkan (standardization) sistem pentadbiran dan pengurusan dagang santeri yang juga melibatkan perdagangan asing dengan sistem cukai teratur, pengurusan pelabuhan, sistem timbang dan sukat, perundangan sehinggakan undang2 atas kapal dagang pun diseragamkan seperti bidang kuasa nakhoda, bidang kuasa juru malim, hukum dan denda sebarang kesalahan atas kapal, pembahagian petak atau lot2 barang dagangan, pembahagian untung antara pemodal dengan agennya yg akan mengikut barang dagang ke tempat asing.

Sekurang2nya pada zaman tiadanya telefon, TV, radio dan suratkhabar dulu, seluruh Asia Tenggara menggunapakai atau merujuk kepada dokumen Undang-Undang Laut Melaka dan Hukum Kanun Melaka. Kalau ke Maluku atau ke Sulawesi pun jika berlaku pertikaian maka perbicaraan dan penjatuhan hukum adalah sama dengan yg dilaksanakan di Melaka atau di Acheh atau di Kedah.

Maka dengan itu layaklah bahasa Melayu ketika zaman itu menjadi bahasa perlu oleh pelbagai bangsa iaitu Lingua Franca.
Tapi sekarang apakah penghasilan kita???????? maka perlulah kita berakit2 ke hulu, berenang2 ketepian, bersakit2 dahulu dengan belajar Sains dan Matematik dalam bahasa Inggeris, bersenang2 kemudian jika bila kita dah menguasainya dan menghasilkan penemuan baru pula.

takkan baru susah sikit dah nak mengeluh teriak, susahlah kita nak mencapai matlamat.
Hang Tuah pasal tahu banyak bahasalah dia dapat menjadi handal dan popular pasal banyak ilmu dari pelbagai bangsa dia dapat belajar, takkanlah kalau dia nak belajar ilmu samurai dia kena paksa guru samurai tu belajar bahasa Melayu dan ajar dia dalam bahasa Melayu, tak patutlah macam tu bang. Tak hilang pun Melayu Hang Tuah bahkan lagi hebat lagi dia boleh redah mana2 tempat asing.

Penakluk ibukota empayar Bizantium Rom iaitu Sultan Mehmet dari Bani Othmaniah/Ottoman menguasai 7 bahasa antarnya Turkish, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian dan Latin menjelang umurnya 21 tahun ketika menewaskan Constantinople. Tak hilang pun bisa dia dan jatidiri Muslim Turki beliau bahkan satu Eropah kenal beliau.

Fairuz Kamarulzaman